2014-12-25 11:33











here.Attachment,of two people's lips,KISSING.The average person will spend about 20,160 minutes of his or her life KISSING.
Hey 歡迎來到Vsauce 我是Micheal.二人嘴唇的親密接觸 就是“吻“,平均每人一生中親吻的時間為20160分鐘。

And the world record for the longest continuous kiss is 58hrs,35mins and 58secs,But why do we kiss?I mean if you think about it,it seems kind of weird,right? I mean,sure Today,kissing represents peace,respect,passion love,But when the first two people in human history KISSED.were they just kind of being gross?
世界持續接吻時間最長的紀錄為58小時35分58秒,但是我們為什么要接吻?我的意思是 如果你曾經想過這個問題 它感覺有點奇怪 對吧?當然 今天吻是和平、尊敬、激情和愛情的象征。但是說到人類史上最先接吻的那兩個人,他們是不是有點惡心呢?

Well,let's begin with what we do know,Kissing feels good,and it's good for you,A passionate kiss burns about 2-3 calories per minute,And releases epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood making your heart pump faster.Kissing,more often,is correlated with a reduction of bad cholesterol and perceived stress.But these positive affects didn't become widespread by accident.
那么 先從我們知道的開始說吧,接吻感覺好好 并且對你也有好處,人激情熱吻時每分鐘消耗2-3卡路里能量,并會向血液中釋放腎上腺素和降腎上腺素 使你的心跳加速,接吻常與降低膽固醇和減輕壓力有關,但是這些積極效應分布面廣并非巧合。

Why did brains and bodies that love kissing become so common?Well,a popular story holds that pacman's shape was inspired by the shape of a pizza with a slice missing,But Toru Iwatani,the creator of pacman,admitted that was only half true.Paceman's shape was also inspired by rounding up the shape of the Japanese character of a mouth.And its mouth and pacman's favorite activity,eating.which together bring us closer to the heart of a kiss.
為什么人類熱愛接吻是如此的常見,在一則流行故事中提到 吃豆人的形狀靈感正來源于缺了一塊的披薩餅,但是Pacman之父Toru Iwatani 承認這并非完全正確,Pacman的形狀靈感也來源于一個閉合的形狀,也就是日文中“口“ 的形狀。Pacman的嘴以及它最喜歡的行為 吃。讓我們逐漸接近了“吻“的核心要義。

Evolutionary psychologists have argued that what we know today as KISSING may have come from kiss-feeding.the exchange of pre-chewed food from one mouth to another.Mother birds are famous for doing this.And many primates are frequently seen doing this as well.

Not that long ago it was common between human nothers and their children.In fact,before commercially produced or DIY baby food instructions were readily available,it made a lot of sense.
不長時間前這種行為也常在人類母子間出現,事實上 在商業生產的幼兒食品或DIY食品指南出現前,這種喂養方式意義非凡。

Recently,Alicia Silverstone uploaded a clip of herself mouth-feeding her child.It seemed strange to some people,but even though,yeah,it exchanges saliva.which,like any contact with an infant can transfer pathogens,healthy mother and healthy children can benefit from the fact that kiss-feeding provides nutrients,carbohydrates,proteins,iron and zine,which are not always available in breast milk.
最近Alicia Silverstone 上傳了一段好自己用嘴喂孩子的視頻,對一些人來說 這看上去很無厘頭,但盡管這的確交換了唾液,而這和任何與嬰兒接觸的方式一樣 都可能傳播病菌,但健康的母親和健康的孩子可以從這個事實中獲利,咀嚼喂養可提供許多營養物如碳水化合物、蛋白質、鐵和鋅,母乳中并不會一直出現這些東西。

Plus,an adult's saliva can help predigest the food,making vitamins like B12 easier for the baby to absorb.So,mouth to mouth attachment has a history of intimacy,trust and closeness.

Your saliva also carries information about who you are,your level of health.and mucous membranes in our mouth are permeable to hormones like testosterome,making a kiss a way to taste test a potential mate.A good kiss can be biological evidence that your kisser might be a good mate,So as a strategy for make selection prehistoric people who enjoyed kissing and did it more often may have made better decisions.picked better mates reproduced more successfully and eventually become the norm.giving us,US,people who love kissing,
你的唾液中也承載著有關你是誰 你的健康程度等等信息,最終薄薄的一層粘膜可以滲透睪酮等荷爾蒙,讓接吻成為一種老師潛在配偶的“口味測試“,一次熱吻可以作為另一半達標的生物證據,那么 作為選擇的一種手段,史前熱愛接吻并且接吻次數多的人可能做出的決定更理想,選擇更合適的配偶 繁育后代成功率更高 最終成為人們的模范。并讓我們這些熱愛接吻的人得以存在。

Any infant could have seen those benefits coming from a mile away,even though an infant's vision isn't that great.From birth to four months,babies can only focus on things about eight to ten inches away from their face.which not surprisingly is about the distance to their mothers' face while breast-feeding.
任何一個嬰兒都能看到從遠方來的好處,即使嬰兒的視力并非如此的好,從降生到四月大時 嬰兒們只能將注意力集中在距離自己臉8-10英尺遠的東西上,在意料中的是 這和母乳喂養時嬰兒和母親臉龐的距離相近。

So faces,especially those looking right at us,tend to be the very first things in our lives,we can focus on and see clearly.This might explain why we are so good at detecting faces,Humans are off the charts when it comes to this,in fact,we tend to see faces even when there aren't any,It's called Pareidolia.
那么 說到臉 尤其是那些正在盯著我們看的臉,似乎也是我們生命中第一件我們能集中地看 能看清楚的事物,這可能可以解釋我們如此善于辨識面龐的原因,事實上 提及此事 人們在這方面的能力早已超出量表范圍,我們能在沒有臉的地方看到“臉“,這就是“空想性錯視“。

Because humans are so cooperative it makes sense for us to be good at recognizing faces.And more importantly detecting when someone is looking directly at us,and clearly expressing when we are looking at someone else.A predator who lives by not being seen,needs a gaze that's less obvious.
人類的合作意識如此地強 以至于我們善于辨識人臉完全說得通,更重要的理 能在某些人盯著我們看的時候有所感受,并且當我們在看別人的時候能表達清楚,以不被發覺為生的捕食者 需要讓他們的眼光不那么明顯。

In fact,research has shown that our surprisingly white scleras,the area that borders the iris,isn't just an accident,But is a vital piece of human eye morphology that makes it easier for us to ascertain the direction of someone else's gaze at a glance,We also have impressive gaze direction networks inside our brains,containing individual neurons that fire when someone is staring directly at us,but that stop firing if that gaze shifts just a degree or two.
事實上 研究表明我們那如此潔白的鞏膜,也就是虹膜邊境的東西,并非是個巧合,但從人眼形態學來看這至關重要 它讓我們更容易在一瞥間確定其他人所注視的方向,我們大腦中有著令人驚異的注視方向判別系統,包括許多神經元個體 并會在我們被人注視的時候發生沖動,但當別人目光轉過一兩度之后沖動就會消失。

So,yeah,you can tell when you are being watched,We humans are quite sensitive to it,even those of us with scopophobia,the fear of being stared at.But to be sure,in order for this to work.the other person's gaze must be within you line of sight,your field of vision that is you can see them.
那么 的確 在別人看你的時候你會有感覺,我們人類對此特別敏感,即便是那些害怕被別人盯著 有著“被視恐怖“的人,但是 這里要說清楚 為人使這種方法有效,其他人凝視你的目光必須在你的視線之內,也就是你的視野之內 你能看到他們(盯著你)。

Otherwise,if the stare is coming say,from behind,there's no evidence that people can tell they are being watched.The psychic staring effect falls within the realm of psudoscience,No widely accepted studies have ever found evidence that it exists.
否則 比如凝視的目光從身后而來,沒有證據能說明人可以感受到他們被注視著,這種超自然的凝視效應最終被歸結到了偽科學的范疇內,尚無廣泛承認的研究能證明它的確存在。

Anecdotally,what's more likely is that the very act of rubbernecking to see who's watching causes people to look up and for your gazes to attach.But what about attachment when no one is watching?
有趣的是 人們伸長脖子東張西望來尋找盯著他們的人反倒造成了人們目光的交匯,那么那種無人注視時的“依戀“又是什么?

One explanation for an infant's love attachment to their mother doesn't involve vision or staring,but instead,food.The idea is that we love our mothers because as soon as we are born.they are a source of life-sustaining nourishment.
嬰兒喜歡依戀在母親身邊的原因之—,和視野范圍或凝視無關 但與食物有關,意思就是我們之所以愛母親 是因為我們出生時,她們是維系我們生命的食物來源之一。

But what if that nourishment came not from a loving mother,but from a scary wire mother?In the 1950s,Harry Harlow conducted a series of famous but controversial experiments.on monkeys at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.Harlow's findings have substantial implications on our understanding of attachment.
但是如果食物并非來自于慈愛的母親,而是一位嚇人的“電線母親“呢?在上世紀五十年代 Harry Harlow 進行了一系列著名但頗有爭議的實驗,實驗在威斯康星大學麥迪遜分校進行 對象是猴子。Harlow's的發現對于我們對依戀的理解有著重大影響。

By today's standards,his work would largely be considered unethical,And one of his most famous experiments,Harlow separated young monkeys from their mothers as soon as they were born,and stuck them in cages with two fake mothers.A soft one wrapped in cloth that did nothing and a cold mechanical mother made of wire,but nonetheless did provide food,But despite being a cupboard mother.the young baby monkeys didn't bond with her,
而從今天的標準而言 他的工作很大程度上會被認為有悖倫理,在他最著名的實驗之一中,Harlow在小猴子出生時就把它們從母猴身邊帶走,把他們關到有兩個假“母親“的籠子里,一個是軟軟的 包裹在布中什么都不做的“母親“,另一個是由電線做成的冷血母親,但是它會提供食物,但是 盡管它為猴子提供食物,猴子們卻不依賴它。

When Harlow or his team scare the baby monkeys with a strange contraption,the monkeys ran and clung not to their wire source of life sustaining nourishment,but to the soft,cuddly and otherwise useless cloth mother.
當Harlow或團隊成員用奇怪裝置嚇猴子的時候,猴子逃跑了 但并未抱在為它提供食物的那個“電線母親“身上,而是那個柔軟卻毫無用處的布媽媽。

This suggested that warmth and comfort was more important than food,when it came to nurturing attachment.Harlow also built a rejecting mother,which used a blast of pressurized air to push baby monkeys away.But instead of finding a another source of comfort.these monkeys clung even tighter at all times.than monkeys raised without rejecting mothers.
這說明了溫暖和安慰比食物更重要,當我們提到撫養時的依戀的話,Harlow也做了一個喜歡排斥的母親,它會用壓縮空氣把猴子推開,但是 猴子們并未尋找其他的能求得安慰的東西,它們反倒抱得更緊 而且一直是這樣,比那些不會“氣絕“的母親撫養大的猴子抱得更緊。

And this is what blows my mind,The instinct for warmth and comfort in newborn creature is so strong,It not only resists attempts to frustrate it,but is paradoxically strengthen by it,Eckhard Hess tested this by using electric shocks to discourage duckings from following the object they were imprinted on.But it only strengthen the behavior and made them follow more closely than never before.
這讓我為之震驚,新生兒尋找溫暖和安慰的本能是如此的強烈,它不僅沒被各種抵抗阻撓 反而很矛盾得加強了,Eckhard Hess驗證了這一理論 他用電擊來阻止鴨子去跟隨它們生來就要跟隨的東西,但這反而加強了這種行為,讓它們比任何時候都跟得更緊。

The fact that a wire mother,or an rejecting mother or receiving the electric shock from attaching their mother,would cause more attachment,more love,more dependence,seems like a paradox,Paradoxes can teach us,as Oscar Wilde put it,A paradox is the truth standing on its head to attract attention,And what gets our attention here is the effect uncertainty can have.
事實是 無論電線母親還是一直在排斥的母親,或者說在跟隨母親的遭到的電擊,都會產生更強的依戀 更多的愛以及更強的依賴感,聽上去似乎是個矛盾,矛盾能讓我們有所收獲,正如Oscar Wilde所說,矛盾就是那些以倒立來吸引我們關注的真理,這里所吸引我們的是不確定性帶來的結果。

In 1955.A.E.Fisher conducted an experiment on puppies,His team separated puppies into three groups:members of the first group were treated kindly every time they approach to a researcher;Members of the second group were punished for approaching the researchers and puppies in the third group were randomly treated kindly or punished,They grew up never knowing what to expect,Their world was not a world of kindness or punishment,but rather,one of uncertainty.

What's really chilling is that the study found that that group,the third group of puppies round up being the most attached to the researchers.The third group loved the researchers the strongest and was the most dependent upon them.
讓我們震驚的是 研究者發現是那一組,是第三組狗狗們最終對研究者的依賴最強,第三組狗狗們對研究者們的愛最深,也是最依賴他們的一組。

Guy Murchie call this "The polarity principle".Stress,including the mental stress of uncertainty is ingredient in attachment or love,And perhaps even manifestations of hatred is polar opposite somehow enhance love,Uncertainty,psychologically can lead to some of the greatest feeling of attachment and dependence.
Guy Murchie稱此為“反向原理“,壓力 包括心理壓力和不確定性是依戀和愛的原料之一,可能表現出的仇恨也會南轅北轍 在一定程度上加深愛意,不確定性 在心理上會產生一些最深最強烈的依戀和依賴感 。

Good things and bad things in our lives often seem radom and out of our control.So it's no surprise that we often react with blind,love and acceptance,in the face of unfair existance.because what else should we supposed to do?
我們生活中好事壞事看似隨機,也在我們控制范圍之外,因此我們常做出盲從 熱愛或是接受的反應不足為奇,當我們面對所存在的不公平時,因為除此之外我們還能做什么呢?

We are that third group of puppies,But investigating uncertainty,conquering it,so as to make the best decisions possible is advantageous,So overtime,life has favored activities that turn uncertainty into knowledge.Not every person out there is the best mate for you.But if you didn't matter which one you picked,A kiss,a taste test wouldn't be necessary,And it wouldn't need to feel so good or bring us so much pleasure.
我們就是那第三組小狗,而深究不確定之事 征服它以作出最好的決定本身對我們有利,漸漸地 生命中的大多事情都會將不確定性轉化成知識,并非所有人都是最適合你的伴侶。但如果你并不在意選擇哪個的話,若一個吻 一個口味測試并非必要,并且并不需要這個吻感覺多好 或是帶來多少樂趣的話。

So go out there and kiss someone today.
那么 今天就請走出房門 給某個人一個吻吧。